On this day, Oct. 15, 1991, Clarence Thomas was confirmed as a Justice on the Supreme Court by the U.S. Senate vote of 52-48. Also on this day, Oct. 15, 1788, James Madison, who was called the Father of the Constitution, commented on the role of the Supreme Court by writing: “As the courts are generally the last in making the decision, it results to them, by refusing or not refusing to execute a law, to stamp it with its final character. This makes the Judiciary department paramount in fact to the Legislature, which was never intended, and can never be proper.”

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