As the 2013 season of devastating wildfires continues to rage across the American West, the question of arson as a form of major terrorism is again being raised.
Already this year, 35,440 reported fires have burned a total of 3.9 million acres, with a quarter-million acres scorched the iconic Yosemite National Park.
Large blazes continue to burn in several states, with six alive in Idaho, five each in California and Montana, and one each in Alaska, Louisiana, Oregon, Texas and Washington.
The National Interagency Fire Center in Boise, Idaho, says at this time last year, 45,278 fires had burned 7.9 million acres, and in 2011, there were 55,619 fires devastating 7.2 million acres.
In July 2012, William Scott, a former National Security Agency official and Aviation Week editor, told the American Center for Democracy that terrorists are using fire as a tactical weapon of war.
“Perhaps the most simple form of economic warfare is wild land arson,” Scott said in his “Fire Wars” presentation. “That’s just setting fires in U.S. forests [and] grasslands.”
"For any terrorists that are determined to inflict significant damage with very little investment or risk, fire is an extremely high-leverage weapon of mass effect."
Scott explained that after U.S. Navy SEALs killed al-Qaida chief Osama bin Laden, they "captured a treasure trove of material that provided some unprecedented insight into the al-Qaida plans. And one of those was a detailed campaign for starting fires throughout the [American] West."
"U.S. officials have pretty much determined that some of the fires that burned in California [in 2011] were ignited by al-Qaida operatives," Scott said.
An editorial in June by the Washington Examiner noted, "Those trying to downplay the threat of terrorism have dismissed such a possibility as paranoid. As Americans learned in 2001, and again as recently as 2012 in Benghazi and 2013 with the Boston Marathon bombing, terrorist threats are not something to take lightly."
This year's wildfire in Yosemite started Aug. 17 in the Stanislaus National Forest, but authorities believe it was not an act off terror. They say a hunter's illegal fire swept out of control, torching 394 square miles of timber, meadows and sensitive wildlife habitat. The Associated Press reports it has cost more than $89 million to fight, and officials say it will cost tens of millions of dollars more to repair the environmental damage alone.
As WND reported in June, an expert on Islamic terrorism believes a wildfire that ravaged the outskirts of Colorado Springs, Colo., killing two people and destroying more than 500 homes, should be examined by terror investigators.
"One thing that my investigators have given me the authority to state is that they have all but ruled out natural causes as the cause of this fire," said Sheriff Terry Maketa at the time. "I can't really go any further on that, but I can say we are pretty confident it was not, for instance, a lightning strike."
That single blaze in Colorado caused more than $85 million in damage, but that figure is expected to rise to possibly $120 million.
The causes for most forest fires are limited to electrical problems, out-of-control campfires or grills, accidents such as a car fire and sparks from chain saws or other back-country tools.
Those causes, to an expert investigator, are readily identifiable.
But authorities said they were focusing on a 28-foot square patch where they believe the fire started, examining some portions with a magnifying glass.
At the American Center for Democracy, noted terror funding expert Rachel Ehrenfeld suggested circumstances are a little suspicious.
Ehrenfeld, once targeted by a Saudi official with a foreign lawsuit over her work in the United States, was the reason the "Securing the Protection of our Enduring and Established Constitution Heritage Act" was adopted by Congress.
It put an end to lawsuits brought in foreign jurisdictions where speech protections do not exist or are not as robust as in the United States which were simply intended to censor or chill speech in the U.S.
"Bill Scott, who's a senior fellow at ACD, warned about such a scenario last July, speaking at the ACD-EWI Economic Threats briefing on Capital Hill," Ehrenfeld wrote. "An expert on aerial firefighting, he presented a sobering analysis of the devastating (2012) Waldo Canyon Fire [in Colorado], pointing out that the striking rise [in] Western U.S. wildfires may be caused by elements other than nature.
"He noted that in spring 2012, al-Qaida's English-language online magazine, Inspire, published an article called 'It Is of Your Freedom to Ignite a Firebomb,' which featured instructions on how to build an incendiary bomb to light forests on fire."
She explained that Russia's security chief, Aleksandr Bortnikov, also has warned, "Al-Qaida was complicit in recent forest fires in Europe" as part of terrorism's "strategy of a thousand cuts."
"Since then, more fatwas advocating that 'fire is a cheap, easy and effective tool for economic warfare' have been issued," Ehrenfeld wrote. "They've included detailed instructions for constructing remote-controlled 'ember bombs, and how to set fires without leaving a trace.'"
Israel's forests also have been targeted, she noted.
"While many of the fires that have scorched millions of acres and destroyed thousands of homes in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and other states have been identified as arson, none has been publicly attributed to criminal or terrorist groups, despite the presence of Mexican gangs and [a] large number of other illegals in our Western states," she said.
Mother Jones reported Don Smurthwaite, a Bureau of Land Management spokesman, "downplayed" Ehrenfeld's ideas, "but he didn't dismiss the notion outright."
"We don't have any hard evidence that any wildfires in the U.S. were started by terrorists in recent years," he told the publication. "But is it a possibility? Certainly."
He noted the last confirmed weaponized wildfires were in World War II, when the Japanese sent incendiary balloons across the Pacific.
However, the Christian Broadcasting Network reported al-Qaida was advising would-be terrorists how best to burn America.
The terror group's magazine included pictures, diagrams and explanations on how to start fires to obtain the most damage.
CBN analyst Erick Stakelbeck said the extreme detail provides reason for concern. The information, he said, is "all designed to cause the maximum amount of carnage and death."
CBN noted that in the U.S., more houses are built in the countryside than in the cities and cited a Montana fire chief who said the prospect of a wildfire terrorist attack was not farfetched.
WND also reported websites run by jihadis made claims of arson in a number of California wildfires.
WND reported in 2004 that an Arabic-language jihadi website also posted a message purporting to be "al-Qaida's plan of economic attack" on the U.S. that including proposals to turn the nation’s forests into raging infernos.
The National Terror Alert Response Center report said: "We are NOT implying that the California fires are an act of terrorism; however, the threat of pyro-terrorist attacks pose a significant risk to the U.S. and the fires in California and Greece earlier this year should be a wake-up call."
Even in 2003, an FBI memo warned that national forests in the West could be the next target for terror by Osama bin Laden's al-Qaida network.
The memo, obtained by the Arizona Republic, warned law enforcement that a senior al-Qaida detainee told interrogators he planned to spark multiple, catastrophic wildfires simultaneously in Colorado, Montana, Utah and Wyoming to strike a blow to the U.S. economy.
WND also reported documents recovered from a remote area along the Pakistan border revealed that bin Laden wanted al-Qaida to launch a "global fireball" by lighting forest fires in Europe, the United States, Australia and South America.
The documents, uncovered during an operation led by the British intelligence service MI6, were described by experts in that agency as "the most worrying [plot] that the world is facing."