The Pulitzer Prize-winning book "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies," written by Jared Diamond (1997), documented that throughout human history, hunter-gathers were always subdued by people groups who made the transition to agriculture.
Agricultural domestication of grains led to the domestication of animals, then advances in storage techniques, transportation, record-keeping and military conquests, thus increasing superiority over hunter-gathers.
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This was recorded from Mesopotamia to Indonesia, to Africa, to the Pacific Islands, and to South and North America.
Archaeologists and anthropologists are in general agreement that some time in the ancient past, people migrated from Asia and Siberia across the Bering Strait to the North American continent.
These aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas were still largely hunter-gatherers, existing somewhere between the stone age and the bronze age, when European explorers and settlers began arriving.
Policy toward Native Americans went through several phases:
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- Spanish enslavement and conversions
- French missionaries and evangelization
- English treaties, missionaries, land encroachment & wars
- Democrat policy of Indian removal
- Republican policy of Indian reservations
- Assimilation efforts and casinos
- Financial incentives, allowing access for Islamization
When Muslims conquered Constantinople in 1453, they cut off the land routes to India and China. In 1492, Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella drove Muslims out of Spain and then sent Columbus to find a sea route to India and China. Columbus sailed west and thought he had found India, so he named the native inhabitants "Indians."
Spain sent conquistadors to explore for treasures, notably:
- Balboa (1513)
- Ponce de León (1513, 1521)
- Cortés (1518-1521)
- Pizarro (1524-1532)
- Desoto (1539-1542)
- Coronado (1540-1542)
Spaniards conquered Indians by siding with oppressed minorities against the ruling classes, who were, in certain cases, demanding captives for human sacrifice and cannibalism.
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Spanish rulers enslaved many Indians in Latin and South America, being supported ideologically by the Spanish humanist Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, who argued Indians were less than human.
Spanish Catholic priest Bartolomé de las Casas defended the Indians, arguing that they were indeed fully human, and as such should be treated fairly. He helped pressure the King of Spain to issue New Laws ending slavery.
Though conquistadors and humanists, such as Sepúlveda, were motivated by greed, missionaries like Bartolomé de las Casas were motivated by the Gospel.
Once enslavement of Indians was outlawed, numerous Spanish and Portuguese plantation owners began purchasing Africans from Muslim slave markets and bringing them to the New World.
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In North America, the French arrived in Canada beginning with Jacques Cartier's voyages (1534-1542). French fur trappers enjoyed friendly relations with Indians and French Catholic missionaries were received favorably from the time of Pere Jacques Marquette to Pierre-Jean DeSmet.
English settlers landed in Virginia in 1607. Some traded alcohol, knives and guns to the Indians, with a selfish agenda, eventually pushing them back. Others had a selfless agenda, wanting to treat Indian with respect, such as William Penn, who insisted on dealing fairly with Indians, and missionaries who led evangelizing efforts among Indians, such as John Eliot, David Brainerd and Count Zinzendorf of Moravia.
Pilgrims settled in Massachusetts and made a long-lasting treaty with the Indians, beginning with Governor John Carter and Chief Massasoit. Chief Massaoit died, leaving his son Philip to become chief in 1662. The new governor of Massachusetts, Josiah Winslow, did not pursue good relations with the Indians. The situation deteriorated, leading to the outbreak of King Philip's War, 1675-1678. After the Indians lost, significant areas of their land were confiscated.
Later, between 1754 and 1763, the French and Indian War broke out between the British and the French, with many Indians siding with the French. During this war, British-American Colonel George Washington built Fort Necessity on Great Meadows in 1754. He received a letter from his brother Lawrence's father-in-law, Mr. William Fairfax: "I will not doubt your having public prayers in the camp, especially when the Indian families are your guests, that they, seeing your plain manner of worship, may have their curiosity excited to be informed why we do not use the ceremonies of the French, which being well explained to their understandings, will more and more dispose them to receive our baptism, and unite in strict bonds of cordial friendship."
When France lost the war, all French territory west of the Appalachians and east of the Mississippi was ceded to Britain. The Indians who had sided with the French also lost large areas of land.
Later, during the Revolutionary War, General George Washington was visited at his Middle Brook military encampment on May 12, 1779, by Delaware Indian Chiefs who brought three youths. Washington assured them: "Brothers: I am glad you have brought three of the Children of your principal Chiefs to be educated with us. I am sure Congress will open the Arms of love to them, and will look upon them as their own Children, and will have them educated accordingly. This is a great mark of your confidence and of your desire to preserve the friendship between the Two Nations to the end of time, and to become One people with your Brethren of the United States. ..."
Washington continued: "You do well to wish to learn our arts and ways of life, and above all, the religion of Jesus Christ. These will make you a greater and happier people than you are. Congress will do everything they can to assist you in this wise intention; and to tie the knot of friendship and union so fast, that nothing shall ever be able to loose it. ... And I pray God He may make your Nation wise and strong."
After the Revolution, George Washington retired to Mount Vernon where he wrote to the president of the Continental Congress, Feb. 8, 1785: "Toward the latter part of the year 1783, I was honored with a letter from the Countess of Huntington, briefly reciting her benevolent intention of spreading Christianity among the Tribes of Indians inhabiting our Western Territory; and expressing a desire of my advice and assistance to carry this charitable design into execution. I wrote her Ladyship ... that I would give every aid in my power, consistent with the ease and tranquility, to which I meant to devote the remainder of my life, to carry her plan into effect. ... Her Ladyship has spoken so feelingly and sensibly, on the religious and benevolent purposes of the plan, that no language of which I am possessed, can add aught to enforce her observations."
President Washington addressed Congress, Nov. 6, 1792: "Laws will expire during the present session. Among these, that which regulates trade ... with the Indian tribes. ... Your common deliberations ... will, I trust, be productive ... to our constituents ... by conciliating more and more their ultimate suffrage ... and confirm their attachment to that Constitution ... upon which, under Divine Providence, materially depend ... their happiness."
On Aug. 29, 1796, President George Washington dictated a "Talk" to the Cherokee Nation: "Beloved Cherokees: The wise men of the United States meet once a year, to consider what will be for the good of all their people. ... I have thought that a meeting of your wise men once or twice a year would be alike useful to you. ... I now send my best wishes to the Cherokees, and pray the Great Spirit to preserve them."
During the War of 1812, Indians who had sided with the British lost more land. When gold was discovered in Georgia in 1828, greed caused encroachment onto Indian lands. The big-government solution proposed by Democrat President Jackson and the Democrat-controlled Congress was the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The federal government forced thousands of Indians to migrate on the Trail of Tears to Oklahoma.
Republican President Ulysses S. Grant ended the removal policy and began the reservation policy, encouraging Christian missions among the Indians.
In 1887, the federal government attempted a big government solution with the Dawes Act to have Indians assimilate by taking children away from their families and educating them in a federal common-core type program.
When it was discovered that Indian Reservations had valuable resources of oil, gas, minerals, and gold, greedy politicians found ways to take more of their land. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 was supposed to give Indians more control over their lives but ironically resulted in the federal government getting more involved in internal tribal affairs.
Henry Ford is credited with stating: "Any man who thinks he can be happy and prosperous by letting the government take care of him, better take a closer look at the American Indian."
A relocation program in the 1950s brought tens of thousands of Indians into inner cities for low-wage jobs, and more tribal lands were transferred to private ownership.
Republican President Nixon repudiated this policy and instituted laws bolstering tribal sovereignty, though this sovereignty was gradually eroded by state and local jurisdictions.
With the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988, casinos, bingo halls and other gambling operations on Indian reservations have increased to include 460 gambling operations in 2011, run by 240 tribes, with total annual revenue of $27 billion.
In recent years, Muslims have made inroads onto Indian Reservations, as they are also doing in the Caribbean, and Latin and South American countries, namely: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay and Venezuela.
In 2006, Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan visited the Navajo Nation in Arizona.
In 2012, U.S. Rep. Tom Cole R-Okla, introduced a bill to allow Muslims from Turkey special access to Indians, stating: "I was approached by the Turkish Coalition of America who have a deep interest in Turkey and American Indians. ... Turkey's continued interest in expanding business and cultural ties with the American Indian community ... across the U.S."
John Berrey, chairman of the Quapaw Tribe (Oklahoma), claimed: "The Turkish and Native American peoples are beginning to come together under their own momentum to develop broader and deeper economic and cultural ties."
Beginning in 2008, the Turkish Coalition of America has awarded scholarships for Native American students to study abroad in Turkey. The Turkish Coalition of America spent millions flying Native American tribal leaders to Turkey, as reported on its 2010 IRS Form 990: "sponsorship of educational travel for congressional members and staff as well as Native American leaders."
The Indian Country Today Media Network reported: "The first Native American Business Cooperation Trip to Turkey, attracting 20 leaders from 17 Native American tribes. .. met with Turkish high officials, including Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu," as reported by the Associated Press.
In 2011, Turkey's deputy minister for foreign trade was the first foreign government official ever to address the American Indian Business Trade Fair and the Reservation Economic Summit (RES) in Las Vegas.
The Warm Springs Tribes in Oregon presented Turkish government leaders with a gift at the residence of the Turkish ambassador to the United States in November 2013. Indianz.com reported (9/9/15): "Top officials from Turkey have indeed reached out to Indian Country."
Turkey's advances into the Native American tribes are promoted by Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan and his Islamist Justice and Development party (AKP) who have been moving Turkey towards a more fundamentalist sharia Islamic State. Many suspect Erdogan is positioning himself to be the caliph of a reemerging Islamic Caliphate. The Economist reported (2/4/16): "Mr Erdogan made a telling remark ... 'Democracy is like a train,' he said, 'you get off once you have reached your destination.'"
The Agence France-Presse reported Turkish businesses are acting as a front for Islamist extremists: "Turkish companies of creating a shadow economy, using double accounting and propagating nationalistic and extremist ideology. ... Long wary of the influence of Islamic fundamentalism ... secular authorities appear to be linking Turkish private business to the activities of the Nurcus, an Islamic group that is banned in the country."
Indian reservations along America's southern borders, such at the Tohono, are being overrun by illegals which include drug gangs infiltrated by Islamic groups, such as ISIS, Hamas, and Hezbollah. The Arizona desert is littered with Islamic prayer rugs, Qur'ans, Spanish-Arabic dictionaries, Pakistani Urdu-English dictionaries, even an Iranian book celebrating suicide bombers. Illegal OTM's (Other Than Mexicans) include Muslims from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Pakistan, Yemen, Qatar, Algeria, Somalia, Malaysia, Libya, Eritrea, Indonesia, Lebanon and the Philippines.
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